Saturday, June 6, 2020

Rules Of Summary Writing How To Conclude Your Paper

How to Write a Summary to Get a Good Grade? Writing a summary might be really challenging. However, if you know how to write it exactly, you will succeed and receive the highest scores. So, what is summary and how to write it correctly? Let’s find the answers to these questions. Definition A summary is such a type of writing where you restate someone else’s points of view in your own words. There are many various types of summaries. They might vary accordingly to the degree you analyze or interpret the source. Their length varies too: some of them are 1 or 2 sentences or 1 page long. Nevertheless, no matter which the summary is, you should generally state the main claim or data of another writer. Targets of the Summary First of all, writing a summary, you will have to define the target reader. It may be either a boss, professor or client. What is the reason why the reader mustn’t read the initial source? This is because the summaries provide a general and concise version of the original data. Summaries are beneficial for the reader because they give fast overviews of the information. Also, the reader might understand from your summary that you understood the main idea of the text. So, it enables your teachers to evaluate your knowledge. In other words, when you write a summary, you begin to properly understand the text. In the aftermath, you are able to present your own knowledge within the context of the researched text. Meaning, you will be able to write a summary of someone’s claim in order to critique or analyze it. When and What to Summarize Many writers misunderstood the concept of writing a summary and instead of summarizing, they just quote. You should quote only in case the author expresses witty and interesting language or a claim in a particular telling, writing a summary. You should only summarize, otherwise. You should utilize a summary in order to restate the main claim. Also, you may utilize a summary to present data. It is much more economical to summarize than to quote because, writing a summary, you may control the main claim. How to Write a Summary: Read the initial text or passage very precisely, writing a summary. Highlight what you consider to be the major claim of the text with a pencil. Make some notes on the sheet of paper or in the margins. Outline the claim of the author, in case you summarize the essay. Inform the reader about the main arguments of the entire text, when you are writing a summary. Summary Conventions As it was mentioned above, the summaries might be either long or short. Whatever the size is, you should utilize the full sentences in order to present the author’s main arguments to the reader, writing a good summary. Don’t include extensive quotes. Quoting, document the quotation and utilize the quotation marks. Note that when you don’t document the quotation, it will be treated as plagiarism, even if it is just one word. (Plagiarism is using someone else’s words like they are your own ones.) To introduce information, utilize the author’s surname as a tag when you are writing a summary:  Gates notes that education in the U.S. A. has undergone a great number of revolutions in the last 20 years. Brown argues that environmental degradation and population growth are causally related.   Summarizing the author’s main claim, you should utilize the present tense:  Green confirms that either Democratic or Republican parties are being funded by similar big corporations nowadays.   Example of a Good Summary Decter claims that today pornography gets more realistic since the names and identities of people are used in the photos. Therefore, it is unpleasant for viewers and readers, who can grow up with frustrated or dissatisfied fantasies. To conclude, writing a summary is such an interesting and exciting activity. If only you are aware of how to write a summary correctly. With all the recommendations, mentioned above, you will cope with this process. We are sure you will get a good grade if you try hard, of course. We believe that your summary will stand out in a crowd as long as you know very well how to write a summary properly now. Wish you all the best on your way to a scholarship. Have a wonderful day!

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Analysis Of Graduation By Maya Angelou - 766 Words

The Prevalence of Gender Discrimination Life is not always easy as we think, each and every one had a bad experience in your life that teaches you a lesson for us in order to win the journey of our life. In the essay, Graduation, Maya Angelou states about the unfair treatment of whites against the African Americans during the graduation. There are situations in life where we feel discriminated but no matter what we have to gain the strength to prosper. In this article, Angelou talks about her eight-grade graduation experience. Angelou mainly focused about the unfair treatment of African Americans during that time because they were not values on their educational intelligence. Also, the white people were in charge of the African†¦show more content†¦I was raised in India, where parents considered their son to be more superior than their daughter. Even in my family, sometimes I feel that my parents like my brother more than me. They usually allow him to hang out with his friends during night but I was restricted to go out with my friends just because I am a girl. When I got restricted many times for the things that I liked to do, many times I got offended and felt inferior to my brother just like Angelou felt when she got insulted. Gender discrimination is not something that we can see in our home but also when we look into our society, we can see many types of discrimination. It can be in school, workplace, bus or even in train. The main problem with our society is that people consider women as powerless or someone to be in home to look after the kids. People think that some works can be done by only men so they just hire male workers by thinking that female workers cant do heavy works. Also, there will be unequal wages between male and female workers by just looking into their gender. Sometimes men get higher wages because the boss think that males are the one who take care of the family. In some cases, if woman is pregnant, some employers do not even like to interview or hire them just because they are pregnant. So, in most cases, women have to hide their pregnancy because of the fire they get fired. These kinds of gender discriminationShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Graduation By Maya Angelou960 Words   |   4 PagesEssay on â€Å"Graduation† by Maya Angelou Racial segregation was very dominant in the United States in the mid nineteen hundreds. This is the time that Maya Angelou was graduating from the eighth grade in Stamps Arkansas. The theme of racial segregation is well shown by the how different the schools of the African-Americans was compared to that of whites in the essay â€Å"Graduation† by Maya Angelou. In the essay the Angelou points out that Lafayette County Training School didn’t have a lawn, hedges, tennisRead MoreAnalysis Of Graduation Day By Maya Angelou728 Words   |  3 PagesAre encouraging words the uniting force when fighting injustice? In â€Å"Graduation Day,† Maya Angelou addresses how encouraging words affected the injustice she faced as a child. Angelou informs her audience about the influence encouraging words had on her and the people in her community. These uplifting words united her community in a time of overwhelming bias. Encouraging words unite oppressed people to fight injustice. Spiritual words unite communities to fight injustice and practice in good worksRead MoreThe Rhetorical Analysis Of Mary Crow Dog And Graduation By Maya Angelou1640 Words   |  7 Pageswriting to be effective or not. Mary Crow Dog and Maya Angelou are both effective rhetors because their rhetorical situations work together to make their essays compelling. â€Å"Civilize Them with a Stick† by Mary Crow Dog and â€Å"Graduation† by Maya Angelou each introduce effective rhetorical situations as they establish their individual identity through their educational experiences. â€Å"Civilize Them with a Stick† by Mary Crow Dog and â€Å"Graduation† by Maya Angelou are each experts of autobiographies writtenRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Maya Angelou s I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings 1036 Words   |  5 PagesFily Thiam English 002 Mrs. Vilato 9 April 2015 Rhetorical Analysis on â€Å"Graduation† by Maya Angelou In Graduation, a chapter in her autobiography â€Å"I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings†, Maya Angelou talks vividly about her middle school graduation in the segregated South. Graduation is an important milestone in most people’s life, as they get a degree and move on to their next level, something better and more important, with the hope that they can use their new knowledge to achieve their life goals andRead MoreI Know Why The Caged Bird Sings1482 Words   |  6 Pages Maya Angelou tells of her life experiences and struggles in her book â€Å"I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings† that gives us insight about Maya’s life as a young black girl growing up in a time of racism. The novel discusses various forms of oppression that she had to face as well cope with them. Robert A. Gross wrote an analysis for Newsweek about the book and claimed that Angelou’s book is not only an interesting story of her own experience, but also a portrayal of a Southe rn black communityRead MoreUxt Task 1945 Words   |  4 PagesRunning head: Analysis of â€Å"Still I Rise† 1 Analysis of â€Å"Still I Rise† When reading, â€Å"Still I Rise†, by Maya Angelou, I immediately get a sense of perseverance and pride. The author seems to be addressing her adversaries directly through her words. I love the imagery used in this poem. I can almost see the dust rising and can feel the swelling of the black ocean that the author mentions. â€Å"Cause I walk like I got oil wells pumping in my living room†(Angelou, 1978), and, â€Å"Laugh like I’veRead MoreMaya Angelou Response Essay717 Words   |  3 Pageshistory since colonial times. In her essay â€Å"Graduation,† Maya Angelou recollects the experience of her eighth grade graduation in the 1930s to examine the personal growth of humans caught in the adversity of racial discrimination. Through narrative structure, selection of detail, and use of imagery, Angelou encourages young blacks to follow their ambitions with pride, despite what the â€Å"white man† thinks of them. Through her narrative structure, Angelou aspires for young black students to maintainRead MoreMaya Angelou: A Model Woman Through Influential Literature Essay1708 Words   |  7 Pagesinfluence on society itself. Maya Angelou is a great example of the model woman. She has beaten the odds and has become one of the most well known African American women of today. She is an author, poet, historian, songwriter, playwright, dancer, stage and screen producer, director, performer, singer, and civil rights activist. Her most influential work comes from her extraordinary books and poems. Her literature has influenced the young and old with their contents. Maya Angelous literary significanceRead MoreMaya Angelou : An Influential Voices Of Modern Society Essay1386 Words   |  6 PagesMaya Angelou, born Marguerite Ann Johnson on the 4th of April 1928, was born in St. Louis, Missouri and grew up in Stamps, Arkansas. Maya Angelou is regarded as one of the most noteworthy, influential voices of modern society with over 50 doctorate degrees. She became a distinguished poet, educator, producer, actress, historian, filmmaker, memoirist, and civil rights activist throughout her life. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, Stamps, Arkansas was the embodiment of brutality and racial discriminationRead MoreI Know Why the Caged Bird Sings - Maya Angelou6502 Words   |  27 PagesAnalysis: Chapters 1–5 The lines from the poem Maya cannot finish, â€Å"What are you looking at me for? I didn’t come to stay . . .† capture two of the most significant issues she struggles with in her childhood and young adulthood: feeling ugly and awkward and never feeling attached to one place. First, Maya imagines that though people judge her unfairly by her awkward looks, they will be surprised one day when her true self emerges. At the time, she hopes that she will emerge as if in a fairy-tale

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Why Study Religion - 1537 Words

It seems as if there has never been a time known to man when there has not been a religion in some shape or form. Nor has there been a race of people who have never tried to practice it in some form or another. The study of religion should not be regarded as a new venture for mankind or a new idea that man is trying to grasp. Also, it could be argued that by researching such a topic as religion, it does not look like man will come to any unified agreement in the near future - especially if it all comes down to what religion means to you, and whether you believe in such a thing or not. So what is religion? Can it be a way of life? Does there have to be the existence of a supernatural? Furthermore, what are the consequences if we†¦show more content†¦This way everyone can have access to the â€Å"truth.† This does not necessarily mean that everybody can have conflicting truths while at the same time agree with the â€Å"Ultimate Truth.† Rather it is to say that one can have a â€Å"truth† that agrees with ones conscience and beliefs, as well as ones understanding of something as important as religion. Modern human beings need a reference point for all the problems that we are facing in the world today. It is easy to see the impact that religion can have on social behavior. Examples of this would be the roles of the religious movements in the struggle for civil rights in the United States, or the way it was involved in the former apartheid system in South Africa. Many times religion lies at the central point of conflict, whether it is Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, or Islam. It can also lead to increasing hostility between religious groups within society. The study of religion can help us find out why these conflicts exist, especially when they all share the same basic concept of peace to all. Many people have the misconceptions that there would be fewer wars if there were no religions. This may be because many wars throughout history have been fought in the name of religion or another. If we study the teachings of the religion that people have supposedly been fighting for, we may come to the conclusion that the bloodshed around the world is not so much due to religion, but rather the reign ofShow MoreRelatedWhy Study World Religions1431 Words   |  6 PagesPHL230 Religions of the World I think that it is important to study world religions because it can help people to become more tolerant of other’s beliefs and more compassionate to other people’s causes. With so much war and misunderstanding in the world based on religious viewpoints, it is important to take the time to find out where and why people believe the way that they do. While I find that most people in the world follow a religion based on their geographical location, this is not the caseRead MoreThe Between Mccutcheon, Marx, And Nietzsche s Theories On Religion921 Words   |  4 PagesRussell McCutcheon urges terms like â€Å"religion† and â€Å"religious† should not be used by scholars when referring to the study of religion. McCutcheon even suggests these words should be abandoned and removed from our vocabulary all together. He claims studying social sciences like anthropology, sociology, and psychology and using appropriate terminology will lead to a more accurate underst anding of why we as humans are religious and how our religion ultimately affects our behaviors. Feuerbach, Marx,Read MoreThe Categories Of Religious Studies1124 Words   |  5 PagesReligious Studies When most religious studies students think of religion they think of people that are very passionate about their particular god, but most people do not understand why people act the way they do in religions. In religious studies they examine how different categories of religion help people of that religion conduct a structured way of life. There are many categories, that once are utilized, will help religious studies students obtain a deeper understanding of people in religions. TheRead MoreMarx, Weber, And Social Distress972 Words   |  4 Pagesincrease on the foundations of rationalism. Many people of the day questioned religion and had no need for a God. Marx was born in 1818 and was the earliest of the other thinkers. The crazy thing is that he wrote very little as it is about religion. According to Marx, he sees religion as an ideology. Religious distress is at the same time the expression of real distress and also the protest against real distress. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, justRead MoreA Study of Religion Converts among Muslim Malaysian1298 Words   |  5 PagesTitle: A study of religion converts among Muslim Malaysian. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, the issue of apostate again had given attention by the mass media, recently. Due to the fact, apostasy among Muslims in the country has reached a critical level. The number of people born Malay-Muslims who seek to change the original name and the new converts who do not practice the Islamic way of life or want to return to the religion are increasing year by year. According to Perak Mufti Tan Sri Harussani ZakariaRead MoreReligion Toolkit Response By John Morreall And Tamara Sonn1616 Words   |  7 PagesReligion Toolkit Response p. 1-14 The introduction to The Religion Toolkit: A Complete Guide to Religious Studies by John Morreall and Tamara Sonn establishes the basic purposes behind studying religion. It tries to show its readers that religion may be a much broader and undefined topic than they might be expecting. The Religion Toolkit discusses how the academic study of religion differs from the normative study of religion, how religion is not clearly described, and how Religious Studies comparesRead MoreReligion And Its Effect On Society1649 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Religion is a practice for people to believe in a higher deity—a superior to the mortal world in which we, humans, live in.† At the beginning of this semester, this was the definition I composed when I was asked to define religion. While this initial answer has some relevance to what religion is overall, it is still over-simplistic because it does not address all the various components that religion incorporates. During the course of this semester, I have learned how to more accurately define religionRead MoreDefining Religion Essay1687 Words   |  7 PagesDefining Religion The most fundamental question when examining a religion is what is religion? That is a distinctly hard question to answer considering that what is ordinarily considered to be religion is not all it is, and what many consider not to be religion may be near religious (i.e. sports). The truth is that there are no genuine answers to the question of what is religion. Definitions of religion tend to suffer from one of two problems: they are eitherRead MoreA Sociological Study Of Religion1159 Words   |  5 PagesReligion is one of the most difficult topics in life, not to mention the oldest. People look for the ultimate truth to religion, which in my opinion leads to misguidance and a slant of science. I think this helps true believers find their way to a faith; it certainly helped me. Science does get carried away at times; however, it is good that people are questioning stories from the bible because then we can see how corrupt the world is. Why can t faith exist? Why does everything have to be blackRead MoreEssay on Religious Relativity1017 Words   |  5 Pagespracticing, preaching, and learning religion. We find people everyday that recognize their own beliefs to be beliefs and nothing more but we also see people who consider their beliefs to be the truth and hold that truth to be the highest. I believe it is entirely possible for us to step outside of our own belief system and to tolera te and understand other people’s religious beliefs. I believe religion teachers exemplify the theory of religious relativism the best. Religion teachers can very well believe

Representation of Women in Action Movies free essay sample

If a man can fight, he’s a hero. If a woman can fight, she’s a b**ch! Representation of women in action films The film industry never seems to lack action films and there always plenty for the market to choose from however how many of those have women in a leading role? A handful. There aren’t that many films that feature women in lead roles within action films. But the question is why? Why haven’t a majority of these women been given a chance? Are actresses like Uma Thurman and Angelina Jolie one-woman-wonders or have they just been given a lucky break? I’ll be exploring the representation of women in action films through a semiotic analysis. David Gauntlett argues that â€Å"in contemporary society, gender roles are more complex and the media reflects this. The female roles today are often glamorous as well as successful in a way that they were previously not. Much of this is due to the rise of ‘girl power’ in the media, through identities constructed by music artists and contemporary actresses, for example, who are demanding less passive roles† which explains how films like Charlie’s Angels have made it to the forefront. Unfortunately, women have repeatedly suffered from a narrow set of representations in the media. They are regularly linked to the domestic situation i. e. housewives, or as sexual objects represented to entertain men. Furthermore, â€Å"the number of roles for leading women is far below that of men. † Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle is the film I’ve chosen explore and there several reasons behind this. I’ve chosen this text because it portrays women within dominant roles. Furthermore, the concept behind it breaks the pre-existing norm of women being the sexual object that entertains the male hero/spy. This isn’t the case in this film, they’re heroes fighting crime and saving the day. Not only are they stunning and beautiful but they also possess skills that crush and challenge existing stereotypes about women which is exactly why I chose this film. Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle is an action comedy film that was released on the 27 June 2003. The film was directed by McG and produced on a budget of $120 million. It was the sequel to the 2000’s Charlie’s Angels and it was number one at the box office for its opening weekend and produced a worldwide gross of $259. 2 million. The film was a success. It stars an ensemble cast including Cameron Diaz, Drew Barrymore and Lucy Liu. It also features notable actors and actresses such as Demi Moore, Shia LaBeouf and Matt LeBlanc. Diaz, Barrymore and Liu or the â€Å"Angels†, are three extremely talented, strong, sexy women who work as private investigators for unseen millionaire named Charlie. Prior to this film, they had starred in more passive roles in the romantic comedy genre. In most action films, men were more likely to be adventurous, active and vicarious, whereas women were more frequently shown as weak, ineffectual, victimised, supportive, laughable or merely token females† (Gunter, 1995). A film such as this allowed their fans to view them in a more dominant, powerful light. This immediately challenges the pre-existing stereotype of women because they are illustrated as superior to their male counterpart. The angels are independent women who aren’t tied down or held back by men. On-the-other-hand, the fact that they work for a male, wealthy character who controls their every move is ironic because in reality, many women are in similar situations and living in a patriarchal society. The opening scene of the film is a brilliant example of the female representation shown throughout the plot. It’s set in a filthy, hostile bar in the Himalayas in Mongolia. The bar is packed with lots of men drinking and jeering. The use of an establishing long shot works well to familiarise the audience with the initial setting and atmosphere. I believe the director did this in order to show the contrast between all of the men and the Angels. A dolly shot is used to track two men carrying a box so the audience become intrigued to learn the contents as they descend into the basement. To the surprise of the audience, Alex Munday (Lucy Liu) was inside the box; contortioned and tucked away. A high angle shot is used and the camera tilts in order to display the actresses’ flexibility. As she rises out of the box the camera zooms into a close up of Liu as she does a symbolic swipe of her long, dark hair; an iconic move for any female superpower. She’s dressed in a black leather ensemble which connotes mystery and obscurity. Perhaps out of the three angels, Liu is the dark horse. As she stands against the wall, a medium shot is used cleverly because not only can we see Liu against the wall but we can also see the hostage and his capturers in the room behind the actress. The connotation is accurate as she then saves the hostage by taking out the guards with some impressive combat. Her character is almost portrayed to be a female equivalent to Jet Li; she appears to be unstoppable and fierce. As she drags the hostage up the stairs, the lighting changes dramatically. The basement was very dark and low-key lighting was used which made the action stealthy and hostile. Whereas, the lighting used in the bar is high-key; very bright and there are few shadows. This is symbolic because it’s as if Alex has taken the hostage from hell (dark, unpleasant) and to heaven (bright, hope) which is essentially the purpose of an angel both contexts. Meanwhile upstairs, the atmosphere is volatile as a new character emerges dressed in a red, sleek kimono. Her costume connotes love, passion and warmth however in this scenario it connotes danger, sin and aggression. This is the 2nd angel; Dylan Saunders. The camera tilts over her shoulder and shows the male opponent smirking at her and then it pans around the table to eventually show her face. As she throws back a shot of alcohol, she comes across as the bad angel, the bad girl of the trio. The use of red with Dylan in this scene is symbolic because it displays a wide contrast between her and Alex. She’s more masculine in her body language but the director has tried to mask this behind the sexy outfit and red lipstick. As she walks away she clasps one of the guards by the waist, grabs his keys and tucks them away subtly. The focus then turns to the doors of the bar and the audience anticipates the worst. As the doors fling open, a medium shot shows a tanned, petite and blonde angelic woman. This is the third and final angel, Natalie Cook. She’s dressed in a white, fluffy coat and a revealing white mini skirt. This connotes purity, happiness and honesty which would be fitting for a normal angel. However, Natalie is no ordinary angel. As she stands at the door, she looks lost and dazed and a close-up of her face supports this further. As the men stare at her beauty in awe, she jeers at them and they erupt with excitement. The men are so amazed they form a guard of honour for Natalie as she walks over to the mechanical bull. Whereas, when Dylan wanted to move through the men they simply didn’t move and didn’t even know she was there. The use of white dumbs the men and amplifies Natalie’s angelic nature. Furthermore, her body language also plays a part in stunning the men. She giggles excessively and winks at a few of the men. Also, Diaz flicks her pigtails every two seconds and is also chewing gum. She hardly challenges the existing stereotype of blonde women but adds fuel to the fire. This is supported further by the fact that her skirt is so short, the audience can see clearly underneath it. Perhaps Natalie is the ‘bimbo’ of the group. The director has clearly added to the stereotype of blonde’s being stupid through Natalie’s character however this could be challenged throughout the plot. I believe this opening scene and in fact the entire plot supports Mulvey’s Male Gaze theory. It states that â€Å"media texts are created through the eyes of a heterosexual male and that women are viewed for the pleasure of men. † (Smith, 2009) She also claimed that â€Å"women are turned into sex objects through how they are shot in the media (Cinematography). (Smith, 2009) Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle demonstrates this. The plot should challenge the norm and allow women to break free however the body language and costumes used throughout diverges the male audience from the plot and to the women being sexualised. In a review by the BBC, Nev Pierce argued â€Å"some call it girl power, others demeaning. † Furthermore, â€Å"Whe n female protagonists, for example, have to function as law enforcers and confront criminal behaviour – both associated with male authority and action – gendered conflict inevitably follows. † (Hall, 1997, p. 364) However, this film could mislead women into thinking they have to become successful and independent by wearing tight, revealing clothes and caking up their faces with make-up but of course this isn’t true. â€Å"It really makes me more and more angry. The aim is to rake in money, loads of money and people try to do that by all means of all these things – sex, beautiful people, wealth and you always have people who fall for it. † (Ang, 1997, p. 347) This opening scene shows three very different women with different talents however what they all have in common is their characters have been onstructed to appeal to different types of men but collectively appeal to all men. Although this action film had 3 women in lead roles, it failed to truly challenge the existing stereotypes of women having to be objects and requiring sex appeal to become successful. In reality, â€Å"a woman cannot be herself in the society of the present day, which is an exclusively masculine s ociety, with laws framed by men and with a judicial system that judges feminine conduct from a masculine point of view. † References Websites Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle blog (non-official) http://c-angels. blogspot. co. uk/ Pierce, Nev. (2003). BBC film review. http://www. bbc. co. uk/films/2003/06/27/charlies_angels_full_throttle_2003_review. shtml Smith, Mr (2009). Representation Theory http://www. slideshare. net/fleckneymike/representation-theory-2458490 Smcmediastudies, (2011). The Representation of Women in the Media http://www. slideshare. net/smcmediastudies/the-representation-of-women-in-the-media Books Ang, Ien. (2006). Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, in association with Sage. Ang, I. (1985) Watching Dallas: soap opera and the melodramatic imagination, New York, Methuen. Ibsen, Henrik (1917). Ibsen’s Workshop.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

tornadoes Essays (235 words) - Meteorological Phenomena, Meteorology

Tornadoes The Lord is slow to anger and great in power, and the Lord will by no means clear the guilty. His way is in whirlwind and storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet. Nahum 1:3 Tornadoes are tapered, files of air that violently rotate. There are different types of tornadoes. Some of these types are, the Fire Whirl, Multiple Vortex Tornado, Waterspout Tornado, Landspout Tornado, Dust-Devil Tornado, Gustnado Tornado. Crazy and unpredictable wind traps are formed in thunderstorms when hot air rises and the cool air sinks. First, when the hot air rises it pushes the cold air down causing a circular motion. As this circular motion continues, it gains speed. Once it is twirling fast enough, it starts to grow. Eventually the whirl will hit the ground and starts its destruction. Tornadoes form all over the world in various places such as, Australia, Europe, Africa, New Zealand, Asia, North America, and South America. They are most common in the South where the temperature is hotter. This is because tornadoes need hot and cool air to form. Weather can be very dangerous. Out of all the atmospherical storms, tornadoes are the most violent. In conclusion, tornadoes are rapidly spiralling funnels that live in the south and destroy whatever they can reach. Thank goodness they are not native to Washington .

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches

Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Introduction to Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Human society is one of the most complicated aspects of the analysis regarding the relations between individuals, groups of individuals, and other entities that can be allocated in terms of resources of influence. Sociology of power emphasises the power relations between different communities and identifies the real influencing aspects that can alter a situation and the governance as well as the process of rule making.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this respect, it is necessary to dwell on the principles of rule making and different approaches to this process as related to the political rule and social power that can be considered the most important factors while assessing the influence of certain resources on the power, governing power, and resulting in the political regime. Different theor ies of power distribution can be analysed with regard to the power of influence and the amount of resources to influence others or situation. Though history saw many examples of both approaches, pluralist and power elite, it is necessary to enlarge on the principles of power distribution in society in different periods of human civilization’s activity with regard to the economic situation and social movements. Moreover, the political power and the power of influence cannot be analysed as a single and the only aspect for the political regime establishment; these two concepts can be even opposed to each other or exist at the same period making one of those principles more important than other. In other words, the distribution of power in society cannot always be analysed in terms of theories of political rule making. Besides, the power to make political decisions does not always arise from the real objective interests and can be characterised by the interests and preferences of the political participants (Lukes 2005: 29). The pluralist approach is largely opposed to the power elite one in terms of ‘the business of rule’ and the process of rule making due to discrepancies in the regime’s strengths and the overall theoretical advantages of a definite approach. In other words, the pluralism approach highlights the equality of influencing powers regardless its real situation whereas the power of elite approach enables the most influential individuals to make rules. So, the main idea of the current paper consists in analysing and assessing the contradictions between the pluralist and power elite approaches taking into account the distribution of power in society and allocation of resources compared to the political power and the process of rule making.Advertising Looking for essay on natural sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Theories of Political Rule and Social Powe r Theories and the power elite approach.The power elite approach is mostly referred to as the one existing in the era before the French Revolution and is largely opposed to the democracy of the contemporary United States of America (Bull 2002: 8-9). However, it is necessary to note that the concept of state and the problem of rule making are closely connected to the distribution of power because the power exist in a certain society while a society has certain rules and common interests. In this respect, some states can exist regardless of a definite territory or a restriction of rules to a certain territory because the main concept of power distribution happens among individuals and groups that can be situated within the territory (Bull 2002: 9). Nevertheless, though political power is spread over the population, it is often limited to a certain territory and can change regarding the interests of the same nation and preferences existing in various regions of the same state. The main theory of power elite approach in rule making concerns the command as the way to allocate the process of distribution of power in society; however, it is necessary to emphasise the principle when the interests or rules are characterised as good or legal contrasted to the objective principles or unification of preferences that is typical of a power elite approach (Poggi 1978: 2-5). In additions, the existence of visible diversity and other so-called advantages of the pluralist approach can be considered irrelevant because these concepts do not guarantee the appropriateness of political power or genuine equality in the power allocation principles (Lukes 2005: 47). State and society are approached in different ways in by a power elite principle whereas the process of unification is more obvious taking into account the principles typical of the pluralist approach. So, the theory of differentiation is the core of the power elite approach because it enables a single leader to make decisi ons and make laws (often in association with another part of social elite) and there is no necessity to fight for political power as the main concept of influence is the command.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Theories and the pluralist approach. The pluralist approach to the rule making process makes the United States of America the most prominent example of this principle in action. Though there is a number of irrefutable evidence of this method’s inappropriateness and secrecy (regardless of the observable openness), its benefits are largely promoted and supported by the global community and international society. Collective behaviour tradition can be considered the core concept for the pluralist approach to the process of rule making (Gamson 1975: 131). This causes the unification of the relations between individuals, groups, and indivi dual-group/group-individual relations in society. As social relations are commonly unified in accordance with the pluralist approach, inequality arises from the democracy as it appears in a contemporary society because interests are unified as well as preferences though the resources of influence can differ greatly which can result in relocation of political power and, hence, the change of the principles of rule making. The main theories of the pluralist approach include the inferiority of the social preferences compared to the preferences and interests of the political power. As a rule, the pluralist approach is aimed at meeting the requirements of the democracy regardless the genuine principles of power allocation and the amount of resources of influence. Thus, collective goals unify the social interests and make common rules serves the reaching of those goals; the political behaviour can be analysed with regard to the goals of a community opposed to personal interests and prefere nces (Gamson 1975: 138). Benefits of the pluralist approach can be neutralized with the differentiating nature of the contemporary policy in the international society opposed to the principles of unification brought about by other communities that popularize the differentiation concepts. As the core aspect of the pluralist approach to the rule making is the unification, this theory can fail to address all existing interests and preferences topical for the current members of a society. Distribution of Power in Society Discussing the contradictions of the pluralist and power elite theories is incomplete with the consideration of the distribution of power in society.Advertising Looking for essay on natural sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In particular, these issues matter when applied to common analysis of presented theories either approving or disapproving the leading role of society in forming the power relations. Another difficulty arises when dealing with the problem of democracy and inequality. In this case, there is the necessity to make an emphasis on the character of the leading power and the triggering principle of power relations. The major controversy appears when considering distribution of power in society in terms of pluralist views. Due to the fact that this approach is based on meeting the needs of democracies, social power is distributed according to the principle of equal impact on the government. The problem is that equal distribution of power among physical entities is not always possible because of irrational resources allocation presented by material object, social status, and ethical considerations (Dahl 1961:3). In response to this problem, the necessity to introduce the elite power approach to social order is inevitable due to the rigid inequality of property, knowledge and social position, and publicity between the members of society (Dahl 1961:6). In order to reconcile the needs of power elite and the constellations of influenced groups, it is necessary to consider power distribution with reference to institutional arrangement and command. These two concepts presented by Poggi (1978:3) seem to be quite reasonable from the perspective of political order and legitimacy. Indeed, favorable distribution of resources on the basis of command is more effective that that based on custom and exchange. This is explained by the ideas that the body of custom end exchange cannot sustain the exploration and mobilization of new resources and values. In addition, it does not allow society to prevent various contingencies enabling the members to choose the most appropriate patterns to act (Poggi 1978:4). Arising from everything mentioned above, the main principle of power allocation s hould be based on unanimous legitimate arrangement on the two-polar power system. Therefore, society should be directed by one or a specific set of goals that would encompass social and political order. Alternatively, the disposition of views and approaches, which is typical of pluralistic order, will lead to appearance of different values and beliefs (Bull 2002:4). Bull’s approach to the distribution of power is predominantly based on monopolistic views that exclude the pluralist techniques for the decision-making process. Therefore, the introduction of democratic approaches will strike the balance within the domain of social and political dimensions (Emerson 1962:32). Comparative Assessment of the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Pluralism and Elite Power Approaches Highlighting the strengths of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Each of the approaches under consideration has some strong sides due to their great contributions to the arrangement of social and political order. Considering the pluralist theory, the positive side of pluralist approach implementation consists in its focus on social relation as the leading factor of power formation. In particular, the main underpinning of social power is not the leading actor, but the relation itself (Emerson, 1962: 33). The leaders possess power only when they have a specific group to impose power on. In addition to this, the pluralist approach is more effective as far as a decision-making process is concerned. Lukes (2005:17), thus, places an emphasis on the social behavior as the triggering factor of social relations and as an indicator of power. Consistent and successful process of decision making generates a healthy competition that, in its turn, positively contributes to social, economical, and political development of a state. In contrast, the main merit of the elite power approach in the process of rule making is also valuable. According to this theory, the social relations are governed by one purpose where all decisions are made with regard to this purpose. The success of such monopolistic approach is possible in case the state is headed by the leader who has sufficient resources and who is able to allocate them within society in a reasonable way. The governing of one leader fosters the accomplishment of the established goals and decreases the possibility of disagreement within society (Bull 2002: 9). More importantly, the elite power theory contributes to the formation of social and political integrity. Considering the elite theory of power through the prism of social order, this approach is more efficient in arranging rules and orders within a state, particularly if the flow of social activities is based on the principle of command (Poggi, 1978:5). Indeed, the exploration and advancement will be considerably facilitated under the auspices of a monopolistic power. Highlighting the weaknesses of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Although the pluralist approach t o the process of rule-making is more productive for meeting the needs of society, it encounters the difficulties when dealing with the equal allocation of sources (Dahl 1961:5). In particular, excessive democracy dictating equal participation in governing can lead to greater discrepancies between communities. Discussing pluralism from the point of view of order formation, this method of rule making is irrelevant, because the social order cannot be based on the divergent positions. What is more important is mixed views cannot satisfy legal, moral, and economic aspect of decision making as the essence of political decision consist in the necessity to promote specific goals. The problem of decision making arises when dealing with elite power approach to the process of rule making. By promoting the leaders’ rules and preferences, the government deprives society of political significance and minimizing its role in providing viable solutions. In other words, the suppression of poli tical role decreases the importance of social relations (Emerson: 1962: 32). As a result, the government can lose the object of power and, therefore, it cannot be considered to owner of the power itself. In addition, the concentration of power can even lead to great inequality of resources distribution. Conclusion The pluralist and elite power approaches constitute opposite sides of a two-polar system with regard to the process of rule making. This is primarily predetermined by opposite focus on the political systems and conceptual priorities of both approaches. Hence, the pluralist approach is more concerned with influencing powers and social relations whereas the power of elite approach argues the necessity to establish a unanimous goal to pursue. On the one hand, a pluralistic approach considers social relations as the underpinning of governing and resources allocation. It also strives to establish the equality in the process of decision-making. On the other hand, elite power con cept is more effective in reaching the policy of unification where the international order is subjected to the prevailing superiority-inferiority relations. Taking into consideration all strengths and weaknesses, both approaches simultaneously provide viable solutions and serious controversies when applied to the distribution of power in society. Bull, Hedley. The Concept of Order in World Politics. The Anarchical Society. A Study of Order in World Politics. UK: Palgrave, 2002, Print. Dahl, Robert A. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Emerson, Richard M. â€Å"Power-Dependence Relations†. American Sociological Review. 27.1. (1962): 31-41. Print. Gamson, William A. â€Å"the limits of Pluralism.† The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood: The Dorsey Press, 1975. Print. Lukes, Steven. Power: a Radical View. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print. Poggi, Gianfranco. Introduction: The Business of Rule. The De velopment of the Modern State. California: Stanford University Press, 1978, Print.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Organizational Behavior Comparative Analysis Essay

Organizational Behavior Comparative Analysis - Essay Example And its immense success can be attributed to its unusual model and people management style, which will be discussed in detail in this document (Doganis, 2002). US Airways Airlines on the other hand is the fifth largest airline in the United States it merged with America West Airlines in 2005 but still retained its original name and culture. Even though it is a huge airline, its successes are nowhere near that of Southwest Airlines and in the following sections we will analyze the matter further (Doganis, 2002). While its business strategy and ability to make quick and very flexible decisions are seen to be the strong points of Southwest Airlines, it is very important to note that the people management aspect of the organization has proven to be an equally big strength. To this end it is the ability of the organization to appropriately manage its extremely diverse workforce that has helped the organization to scale the heights of profitability and success that has eluded many other airlines and in this particular case US Airways Airlines as well. At Southwest Airlines the organizations lays a huge emphasis on the employment of individuals from a variety of backgrounds such as ethnic minorities, individuals of color, individuals of different age groups and most importantly individuals with special needs. While it can be stated and that other airlines do the same, in the case of Southwest Airlines, such practices are not carried out of compulsion by the federal government or the need to take affirmative action but rather by its all inclusive management style that puts employees first as much as it puts customers first. This as we know is the first and most important step in the enhancing employee engagement. When employees feel that they are valued for their contributions as well as for the distinctly differently experiences and backgrounds that they can bring to the table they feel more valued and as result they automatically go the extra mile to ensure the success of the organisation by satisfying and delighting the clientele of the organisation as much as possible (Parvis, 2003). In the case of US Airways Airlines even though diversity is apparent to some extent, it has not been resorted to out of an increased value for the employees but rather due to the compulsions and the impositions of federal and state governments and affirmative action etc. Thus making its real intentions less clear, more ambiguous and leaving the employees less engaged and motivated to give their best to the organization. Management and Leadership Management and leadership are terms that are distinctly different from one another even though they are usually used interchangeably. However they are both very important to any organization that wishes to success and as in the case of Southwest Airlines the management and leadership of the organization has played a crucial role in the last three and half decades of its existence. In effect the management and leadership styles that have been adopted by the organization in past have been flexible, people oriented and most of visionary in nature. This